*REVISED INTRO TO CSGNET*

INTRODUCTION TO THE CONTROL SYSTEMS GROUP (CSG)
             AND THE CONTROL SYSTEMS GROUP NETWORK (CSGnet)

                Prepared by Dag Forssell with Gary Cziko
                           Updated 1995.02.01

This introduction provides information about:

                 Our Subject: Perceptual Control Theory

                  The Evolution of the Control Paradigm

                 Demonstrating the Phenomenon of Control

                          The Purpose of CSGnet

                           CSGnet Participants

                            Asking Questions

                        The Control Systems Group

                   Accessing and Subscribing to CSGnet

                       Gopher and World-Wide Web

                               References

                              Order Forms

                 OUR SUBJECT: PERCEPTUAL CONTROL THEORY

Here are introductions by Bill and Mary Powers:

                             * * * * * * * *

There have been two paradigms in the behavioral sciences since the
1600's. One was the idea that events impinging on organisms make them
behave as they do. The other, which was developed in the 1930's, is
PERCEPTUAL CONTROL THEORY (PCT). Perceptual Control Theory explains how
organisms control what happens to them. This means all organisms from the
amoeba to humankind. It explains why one organism can't control another
without physical violence. It explains why people deprived of any major
part of their ability to control soon become dysfunctional, lose interest
in life, pine away and die. It explains what a goal is, how goals relate
to action, how action affects perceptions and how perceptions define the
reality in which we live and move and have our being. Perceptual Control
Theory is the first scientific theory that can handle all these phenomena
within a single, testable concept of how living systems work.

William T. Powers, November 3, 1991

                             * * * * * * * *
While the existence of control mechanisms and processes (such as
feedback) in living systems is generally recognized, the implications of
control organization go far beyond what is generally accepted. We believe
that a fundamental characteristic of organisms is their ability to
control; that they are, in fact, living control systems. To distinguish
this approach from others using some version of control theory but
forcing it to fit conventional approaches, we call ours Perceptual
Control Theory, or PCT.

PCT requires a major shift in thinking from the traditional approach:
that what is controlled is not behavior, but perception. Modelling
behavior as a dependent variable, as a response to stimuli, provides no
explanation for the phenomenon of achieving consistent ends through
varying means, and requires an extensive use of statistics to achieve
modest (to the point of meaningless) correlations. Attempts to model
behavior as planned and computed output can be demonstrated to require
levels of precise calculation that are unobtainable in a physical system,
and impossible in a real environment that is changing from one moment to
the next. The PCT model views behavior as the means by which a perceived
state of affairs is brought to and maintained at a reference state. This
approach provides a physically plausible explanation for the consistency
of outcomes and the variability of means.

The PCT model has been used to simulate phenomena as diverse as bacterial
chemotaxis, tracking a target, and behavior in crowds. In its elaborated
form, a hierarchy of perceptual control systems (HPCT), it has lent
itself to a computer simulation of tracking, including learning to track,
and to new approaches to education, management, and psychotherapy.

Control systems are not new in the life sciences. However, numerous
misapprehensions exist, passed down from what was learned about control
theory by non-engineers 40 or 50 years ago without further reference to
newer developments or correction of initial misunderstandings. References
in the literature to the desirability of positive feedback and the
assertion that systems with feedback are slower than S-R systems are
simply false, and concerns about stability are unfounded.

The primary barrier to the adoption of PCT concepts is the belief--or
hope--that control theory can simply be absorbed into the mainstream life
sciences without disturbing the status quo. It is very hard to believe
that one's training and life work, and that of one's mentors, and their
mentors, must be fundamentally revised. Therefore, PCT appeals to those
who feel some dissatisfaction with the status quo, or who are attracted
to the idea of a generative model with broad application throughout the
life sciences (plus AI and robotics). There are very few people working
in PCT research. Much of its promise is still simply promise, and it
meets resistance from all sides. It is frustrating but also tremendously
exciting to be a part of the group who believe that they are
participating in the birth of a true science of life.

Mary Powers, November 1992

                             * * * * * * * *

                  THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONTROL PARADIGM

The PCT paradigm originates in 1927, when an engineer named Harold Black
completed the technical analysis of closed loop control systems. He was
working with the negative feedback amplifier, which is a control device.
This led to a new engineering discipline and the development of many
purposeful machines. Purposeful machines have built-in intent to achieve
consistent ends by variable means under changing conditions.

The explanation for the phenomenon of control is the first alternative to
the linear cause-effect perspective ever proposed in any science.

The first discussion of purposeful machines and people came in 1943 in a
paper called: Behavior, Purpose and Teleology by Rosenblueth, Wiener and
Bigelow. This paper also argued that purpose belongs in science as a real
phenomenon in the present. Purpose does not mean that somehow the future
influences the present.

The first specific suggestion on how to use the concept of control to
understand people came in 1957 in a paper entitled: A General Feedback
Theory of Human Behavior by McFarland, Powers and Clark.

In 1973 William T. (Bill) Powers published a seminal book called
"Behavior: the Control of Perception," which still is the major reference
for PCT. See literature below.

This book spells out a complete model of how the human brain and nervous
system works like a living perceptual control system. Our brain can be
viewed as a system that controls its own perceptions. This view suggests
explanations for many previously mysterious aspects of how people
interact with their world.

Perceptual Control Theory has been accepted by independently thinking
psychologists, scientists and other interested people. The result is that
an association has been formed (the Control System Group), several books
published, this CSGnet set up and that at latest count 16 professors are
teaching PCT in American universities today.

                 DEMONSTRATING THE PHENOMENON OF CONTROL

The phenomenon of control is largely unrecognized in science today. It is
not well understood in important aspects even by many control engineers.
Yet the phenomenon of control, when it is recognized and understood,
provides a powerful enhancement to scientific perspectives.

It is essential to recognize that this phenomenon exists and deserves an
explanation before any of the discourse on CSGnet will make sense.

Please download the introductory demonstration (demo1). See "How to
obtain text and program files" below for obtaining files via FTP, Gopher,
and e-mail.

                          THE PURPOSE OF CSGnet

CSGnet provides a forum for development, use and testing of PCT.

CSGnet PARTICIPANTS

Many interests and backgrounds are represented here. Psychology,
Sociology, Linguistics, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Social Work,
Neurology, Modeling and Testing. All are represented and discussed. As of
June 1994 there were about 130 individuals from 17 countries subscribed
to CSGnet.

                            ASKING QUESTIONS

Please introduce yourself with a statement of your professional interests
and background. It will help someone answer if you spell out which
demonstrations, introductory papers and references you have taken the
time to digest.

                        THE CONTROL SYSTEMS GROUP

The CSG is an organization of people in the behavioral, social, and life
sciences who see the potential in PCT for increased understanding in
their own fields and for the unification of diverse and fragmented
specialties.

Annual dues are $20 for full members and $5 for students.

The eleventh North American annual meeting of the CSG will held in
Durango, Colorado, on the campus of Fort Lewis College). It will be held
19-23 July 1995. There will be 7 plenary meetings (mornings and
evenings), with afternoons, mealtimes, and late night free for further
discussion or recreation. Full details will be available on CSGnet or by
mail after April 1, 1995. The second meeting of the European Control
Systems Group (ECSG) will be held in 1996. Details to be arranged and
posted on this net.

For membership information write:
CSG, c/o Mary Powers, 73 Ridge Place CR 510, Durango, CO
81301-8136 or send e-mail to <POWERS_W%FLC@VAXF.COLORADO.EDU>.

                   ACCESSING AND SUBSCRIBING TO CSGnet

CSGnet can also be accessed via Usenet where it is listed as the
newsgroup "bit.listserv.csg-l" or "bit.sci.behavior-purposive"

To subscribe to the listserv version of CSGnet, and learn about options &
commands, subscribers and archives, send a message to

Internet:

LISTSERV@VMD.CSO.UIUC.EDU

Message: (Comments: Not part of your message)

Subscribe CSG-L Firstname Lastname Institution (Your OWN name)
help (Basic introduction to commands)
info refcard (Comprehensive reference of commands)
set CSG-L digest (All CSG-L mail delivered once a day)
set CSG-L repro (Get copy of your own postings)
query CSG-L (Your mail status & options)
review CSG-L countries (Subsribers & addresses, by country)
index CSG-L (List of archive files available to you)
get CSG-L 9412C (Get archive for 3rd week of Dec 1994 --shown here
                        as an example only)

The Bitnet address for the list server is LISTSERV@UIUCVMD. This server
is not case sensitive.

To remove yourself from the subscribe to the listserv version of CSGnet,
send a message as follows to <LISTSERV@VMD.CSO.UIUC.EDU>:

Unsub CSG-L

For the "unsub" command to work, the command must be sent with the same
return address used for the original "subscribe" command.

Messages to the entire CSGnet community should be addressed to
<CSG-L@VMD.CSO.UIUC.EDU> (Internet) or <CSG-L@UIUCVMD> (Bitnet).

For more information about accessing CSGnet, contact Gary Cziko, the
network manager, at <G-CZIKO@UIUC.EDU>.

                       GOPHER AND WORLD-WIDE WEB

A number of documents as well as MS-DOS and Macintosh computer programs
can be obtained via Gopher and the World-Wide Web (WWW site is currently
under construction).

For access via Gopher, connect to gopher.ed.uiuc.edu and follow the path:

Higher Education Resources/
Professional societies & journals/
Control Systems Group

or from your favorite Gopher server follow the path:

Other Gopher and Information Servers/
North America/
USA/
illinois/
University of Ill.--College of Education/
Higher Education Resources/
Professional societies & journals/
Control Systems Group

The WWW address for the CSG homepage (under construction) is http://www.ed.uiuc.
edu/csg/csg.html. We are currently experimenting with
providing archives of CSGnet discussions via WWW. You can also access the
CSG Gopher server from the WWW homepage.

                               REFERENCES

Here are some selected books, papers and computer programs on Perceptual
Control Theory. For a very complete list of CSG-related publications, get
the file biblio.pct from the fileserver as described above. See order
forms at the end.
* * * * * * * *

Bourbon, WT, KE Copeland, VR Dyer, WK Harman & BL Mosely (1990).
On the accuracy and reliability of predictions by control- system theory.
Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 1331-1338. The first of a 20-year series
demonstrating the long-term reliability and stability of predictions
generated by the PCT model.

Bourbon, W. Tom (In Press). Perceptual Control Theory. In: HL Roitblat &
J-A Meyer (eds.). Comparative approaches to cognitive science. Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press. Chapter surveys applications of PCT modeling by Bill
Powers and Greg Williams (pointing, from the ARM/LITTLE MAN program); by
Rick Marken and Bill Powers (movement "up a gradient" by E. coli), by
Bill Powers, Clark Mcphail and Chuck Tucker (social movement and static
formations, from the GATHERINGS program), and by Bourbon (tracking). The
PCT model is contrasted with some of the mainstream models and theories
presented at the workshop.

Cziko, Gary A. (1992). Purposeful behavior as the control of perception:
Implications for educational research. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER, 21(9),
10-18, 27. Introduction to PCT and implications for educational research.

Cziko, Gary A. (1992). Perceptual control theory: One threat to
educational research not (yet?) faced by Amundson, Serlin, and Lehrer.
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER, 21(9), 25-27. Response to critics of previous
article.

Ford, Edward E. (1989). FREEDOM FROM STRESS. Scottsdale AZ: Brandt
Publishing. A self-help book. PCT in a counseling framework.

Ford, Edward E. (1987). LOVE GUARANTEED; A BETTER MARRIAGE IN 8 WEEKS.
Scottsdale AZ: Brandt Publishing.

Ford, Edward E. (1994). DISCIPLINE FOR HOME AND SCHOOL. Scottsdale AZ:
Brandt Publishing. Teaches school personnel and parents how to deal
effectively with children.

Forssell, Dag C., (1993). Perceptual Control: A New Management Insight."
In ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT JOURNAL, 5(4), 17-25.

Forssell, Dag C. (Ed.), (1994). PERCEPTUAL CONTROL THEORY: DOS COMPUTER
DEMONSTRATION, TUTORIALS, SIMULATIONS, EXPLANATIONS. 1.44 MB 3 1/2" disk
(1 ea) or 1.2 MB 5 1/4" disk (2 ea). May be freely copied. $10 U.S. by
air worldwide. Write: Purposeful Leadership, 23903 Via Flamenco,
Valencia, CA, USA. Also available via anonymous FTP at biome.bio.ns.ca:
/msm/ftp/pub/csg/pctdemos/

Forssell, Dag C., (1994). MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP: INSIGHT FOR
CONSISTENT PRACTICE. Objective: Committment to common goals, high
performance, consistent results and mutual satisfaction. A collection of
articles and working papers introducing and applying PCT in the context
of business and industry.

Gibbons, Hugh. (1990). THE DEATH OF JEFFREY STAPLETON: EXPLORING THE WAY
LAWYERS THINK. Concord, NH: Franklin Pierce Law Center. A text for law
students using control theory.

Hershberger, Wayne. (Ed.). (1989). VOLITIONAL ACTION: CONATION AND
CONTROL (Advances in Psychology No. 62). NY: North-Holland. 16 of 25
articles on or about PCT.

Marken, Richard S. (Ed.). (1990). Purposeful Behavior: The control theory
approach. AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST, 34(1). (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications) 11 articles on control theory.

Marken, Richard S. (1992). MIND READINGS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF
PURPOSE.
NC: New View. Research papers exploring control.

McClelland, Kent. (In press). Perceptual Control and Social Power.
SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES.

McPhail, Clark. (1990). THE MYTH OF THE MADDING CROWD.
New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Introduces control theory to explain group
behavior.

McPhail, Clark., Powers, William T., & Tucker, Charles W. (1992).
Simulating individual and collective action In temporary gatherings.
SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPUTER REVIEW, 10(1), 1-28. Computer simulation of
control systems in groups.

Petrie, Hugh G. (1981). THE DILEMMA OF INQUIRY AND LEARNING.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Powers, William T. (1973). BEHAVIOR: THE CONTROL OF PERCEPTION.
Hawthorne, NY: Aldine DeGruyter. The basic text.

Powers, William T. (1989). LIVING CONTROL SYSTEMS: SELECTED PAPERS.
NC: New View. Previously published papers, 1960- 1988.

Powers, William T. (1992). LIVING CONTROL SYSTEMS II: SELECTED PAPERS.
NC: New View. Previously unpublished papers, 1959- 1990

Richardson, George P. (1991). FEEDBACK THOUGHT IN SOCIAL SCIENCE AND
SYSTEMS THEORY.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. A review
of systems thinking, including PCT.

Robertson, Richard J. and Powers, William T. (Eds.). (1990).
INTRODUCTION TO MODERN PSYCHOLOGY: THE CONTROL THEORY VIEW.
NC: New View. College-level text.

Runkel, Philip J. (1990). CASTING NETS AND TESTING SPECIMENS.
New York: Praeger. When statistics are appropriate; when models are
required.

                             * * * * * * * *
                               ORDER FORMS

···

-----------------------------------------------------------------
A free 20 page PCT Resource Guide with brief introductions and more
detail on the references listed above and a few more -- publishers,
books, articles, videos, seminars, and the DOS demonstration disk --
may be obtained by sending a note with

1) a self addressed, stamped (55 cents) envelope, or

2) two "international reply" coupons - almost every post office in
   the world sells them.

3) a personal note and request without either of the above

to: Dag Forssell, PCT Introduction and Resource Guide
     23903 Via Flamenco
     Valencia, California, 91355-2808 USA.

The order forms below are reproduced from this Guide. All prices
current as of December, 1994.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
New View: Fred Good Telephone: (919) 942-8491
P.O. Box 3021 Chapel Hill, NC 27515-3021 USA Fax: (919)942-3760

___ ea INTRODUCTION TO MODERN PSYCHOLOGY @ $25.00 _______
___ ea LIVING CONTROL SYSTEMS @ $16.50 _______
___ ea LIVING CONTROL SYSTEMS II @ $22.00 _______
___ ea MIND READINGS @ $18.00 _______
North Carolina residents add sales tax, 6%. Tax _______
Shipping & Handling (ask for schedule) per order _______
Prepaid: Check, money order Total _______

NAME ______________________________Phone(______)_______-__________

ADDRESS
__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------
Purposeful Leadership: Dag Forssell Telephone: (805) 254-1195
23903 Via Flamenco, Valencia, CA 91355-2808 USA Fax:(805) 254-7956

___ ea Management and Leadership: Insight for ... @ $20.00 ______
___ ea PCTdemos. DOS program disk __ 31/2" __51/4" @ $10.00 ______
___ ea Rubber Band Demo. Video & Script 63 minutes @ $20.00 ______
___ ea PCT supports TQM. Video 117 minutes @ $20.00 ______
___ ea 1994 CSG conference. 3 videos, 16 hours. @ $30.00______
___ ea Freedom From Stress. Book by Ed Ford @$10.00 ______
California residents please add sales tax, 8.25%.Tax ______
Shipping & Handling (world wide) per order _5.00_
Prepaid: Check, money order Total ______

NAME _____________________________
Phone__________________________

ADDRESS
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------
Brandt Publishing: Edward E. Ford Telephone & Fax:
(602) 991-4860 10209 North 56th Street, Scottsdale, AZ 85253-
1130 USA

___ ea Freedom From Stress, Book @ $10.00 _______
___ ea Love Guaranteed, Book @ $ 9.00 _______
___ ea Love Guaranteed, Video @ $20.00 _______
___ ea Discipline for Home and School, Book @ $10.00 _______
Arizona residents please add sales tax, 6%. Tax _______
Shipping & Handling (world wide) per order _3.50__
Prepaid: Check, money order Total _______

NAME______________________________
Phone__________________________

ADDRESS
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------
Journal Marketing, Sage Publications Phone orders:
(805) 499-0721 2455 Teller Rd, Newbury Park, CA 91320 USA
Fax: (805) 499-0871

American Behavioral Scientist, Volume 34, Number 1 Sept/Oct 1990
Stock number 201238 Richard S. Marken, Editor
Purposeful Behavior; The Control Theory Approach,
___ ea Price for individuals and companies: @ $11.20 _______
___ ea Price for institutions and libraries: @ $22.40
_______
California residents add sales tax 7.25%. Tax _______
Shipping & Handling (world wide) per order _2.00__
Prepaid: Check, money order, credit cards Total _______

NAME _____________________________
Phone__________________________

ADDRESS
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------
Elsevier Science Phone orders: (212) 633-3650
655 Ave of the Americas New York, NY 10010 USA Fax: (212)633-3680

___ ea Volitional Action, Conation and Control, Hershberger, Ed.
ISBN: 0-444-88318-5 @ $155.50 _______
New York residents add sales tax Tax _______
Shipping included with prepaid orders (within USA) _______
Check, money order, credit cards, P.O's Total _______

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__________________________________________________________________

Outside USA: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands

------------------------------------------------------------------
Aldine de Gruyter Phone orders: (914) 747-0110
200 Saw Mill River Rd, Hawthorne, NY 10532 USA Fax: (914)747-1326

___ ea Behavior: The Control of Perception by William T. Powers
Clothbound ISBN 0-202-25113-6 @ $41.95 _______

The Myth of the Madding Crowd by Clark McPhail
___ ea Clothbound ISBN 0-202-30424-8 @ $47.95 ______
___ ea Paperbound ISBN 0-202-30375-6 @ $24.95 _______
New York residents add sales tax Tax _______
Ship: $4 1st book, $1 per add'l.(Outside US double) _______
Check, money order, credit cards Total _______

NAME ______________________________
Phone_________________________

ADDRESS
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------

- END -

INTRODUCTION TO THE CONTROL SYSTEMS GROUP (CSG)
             AND THE CONTROL SYSTEMS GROUP NETWORK (CSGnet)

                Prepared by Dag Forssell with Gary Cziko
                           Updated 1995.02.01

This introduction provides information about:

                 Our Subject: Perceptual Control Theory

                  The Evolution of the Control Paradigm

                 Demonstrating the Phenomenon of Control

                          The Purpose of CSGnet

                           CSGnet Participants

                            Asking Questions

                        The Control Systems Group

                   Accessing and Subscribing to CSGnet

                       Gopher and World-Wide Web

                               References

                              Order Forms

                 OUR SUBJECT: PERCEPTUAL CONTROL THEORY

Here are introductions by Bill and Mary Powers:

                             * * * * * * * *

There have been two paradigms in the behavioral sciences since the
1600's. One was the idea that events impinging on organisms make them
behave as they do. The other, which was developed in the 1930's, is
PERCEPTUAL CONTROL THEORY (PCT). Perceptual Control Theory explains how
organisms control what happens to them. This means all organisms from the
amoeba to humankind. It explains why one organism can't control another
without physical violence. It explains why people deprived of any major
part of their ability to control soon become dysfunctional, lose interest
in life, pine away and die. It explains what a goal is, how goals relate
to action, how action affects perceptions and how perceptions define the
reality in which we live and move and have our being. Perceptual Control
Theory is the first scientific theory that can handle all these phenomena
within a single, testable concept of how living systems work.

William T. Powers, November 3, 1991

                             * * * * * * * *
While the existence of control mechanisms and processes (such as
feedback) in living systems is generally recognized, the implications of
control organization go far beyond what is generally accepted. We believe
that a fundamental characteristic of organisms is their ability to
control; that they are, in fact, living control systems. To distinguish
this approach from others using some version of control theory but
forcing it to fit conventional approaches, we call ours Perceptual
Control Theory, or PCT.

PCT requires a major shift in thinking from the traditional approach:
that what is controlled is not behavior, but perception. Modelling
behavior as a dependent variable, as a response to stimuli, provides no
explanation for the phenomenon of achieving consistent ends through
varying means, and requires an extensive use of statistics to achieve
modest (to the point of meaningless) correlations. Attempts to model
behavior as planned and computed output can be demonstrated to require
levels of precise calculation that are unobtainable in a physical system,
and impossible in a real environment that is changing from one moment to
the next. The PCT model views behavior as the means by which a perceived
state of affairs is brought to and maintained at a reference state. This
approach provides a physically plausible explanation for the consistency
of outcomes and the variability of means.

The PCT model has been used to simulate phenomena as diverse as bacterial
chemotaxis, tracking a target, and behavior in crowds. In its elaborated
form, a hierarchy of perceptual control systems (HPCT), it has lent
itself to a computer simulation of tracking, including learning to track,
and to new approaches to education, management, and psychotherapy.

Control systems are not new in the life sciences. However, numerous
misapprehensions exist, passed down from what was learned about control
theory by non-engineers 40 or 50 years ago without further reference to
newer developments or correction of initial misunderstandings. References
in the literature to the desirability of positive feedback and the
assertion that systems with feedback are slower than S-R systems are
simply false, and concerns about stability are unfounded.

The primary barrier to the adoption of PCT concepts is the belief--or
hope--that control theory can simply be absorbed into the mainstream life
sciences without disturbing the status quo. It is very hard to believe
that one's training and life work, and that of one's mentors, and their
mentors, must be fundamentally revised. Therefore, PCT appeals to those
who feel some dissatisfaction with the status quo, or who are attracted
to the idea of a generative model with broad application throughout the
life sciences (plus AI and robotics). There are very few people working
in PCT research. Much of its promise is still simply promise, and it
meets resistance from all sides. It is frustrating but also tremendously
exciting to be a part of the group who believe that they are
participating in the birth of a true science of life.

Mary Powers, November 1992

                             * * * * * * * *

                  THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONTROL PARADIGM

The PCT paradigm originates in 1927, when an engineer named Harold Black
completed the technical analysis of closed loop control systems. He was
working with the negative feedback amplifier, which is a control device.
This led to a new engineering discipline and the development of many
purposeful machines. Purposeful machines have built-in intent to achieve
consistent ends by variable means under changing conditions.

The explanation for the phenomenon of control is the first alternative to
the linear cause-effect perspective ever proposed in any science.

The first discussion of purposeful machines and people came in 1943 in a
paper called: Behavior, Purpose and Teleology by Rosenblueth, Wiener and
Bigelow. This paper also argued that purpose belongs in science as a real
phenomenon in the present. Purpose does not mean that somehow the future
influences the present.

The first specific suggestion on how to use the concept of control to
understand people came in 1957 in a paper entitled: A General Feedback
Theory of Human Behavior by McFarland, Powers and Clark.

In 1973 William T. (Bill) Powers published a seminal book called
"Behavior: the Control of Perception," which still is the major reference
for PCT. See literature below.

This book spells out a complete model of how the human brain and nervous
system works like a living perceptual control system. Our brain can be
viewed as a system that controls its own perceptions. This view suggests
explanations for many previously mysterious aspects of how people
interact with their world.

Perceptual Control Theory has been accepted by independently thinking
psychologists, scientists and other interested people. The result is that
an association has been formed (the Control System Group), several books
published, this CSGnet set up and that at latest count 16 professors are
teaching PCT in American universities today.

                 DEMONSTRATING THE PHENOMENON OF CONTROL

The phenomenon of control is largely unrecognized in science today. It is
not well understood in important aspects even by many control engineers.
Yet the phenomenon of control, when it is recognized and understood,
provides a powerful enhancement to scientific perspectives.

It is essential to recognize that this phenomenon exists and deserves an
explanation before any of the discourse on CSGnet will make sense.

Please download the introductory demonstration (demo1). See "How to
obtain text and program files" below for obtaining files via FTP, Gopher,
and e-mail.

                          THE PURPOSE OF CSGnet

CSGnet provides a forum for development, use and testing of PCT.

CSGnet PARTICIPANTS

Many interests and backgrounds are represented here. Psychology,
Sociology, Linguistics, Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Social Work,
Neurology, Modeling and Testing. All are represented and discussed. As of
June 1994 there were about 130 individuals from 17 countries subscribed
to CSGnet.

                            ASKING QUESTIONS

Please introduce yourself with a statement of your professional interests
and background. It will help someone answer if you spell out which
demonstrations, introductory papers and references you have taken the
time to digest.

                        THE CONTROL SYSTEMS GROUP

The CSG is an organization of people in the behavioral, social, and life
sciences who see the potential in PCT for increased understanding in
their own fields and for the unification of diverse and fragmented
specialties.

Annual dues are $20 for full members and $5 for students.

The eleventh North American annual meeting of the CSG will held in
Durango, Colorado, on the campus of Fort Lewis College). It will be held
19-23 July 1995. There will be 7 plenary meetings (mornings and
evenings), with afternoons, mealtimes, and late night free for further
discussion or recreation. Full details will be available on CSGnet or by
mail after April 1, 1995. The second meeting of the European Control
Systems Group (ECSG) will be held in 1996. Details to be arranged and
posted on this net.

For membership information write:
CSG, c/o Mary Powers, 73 Ridge Place CR 510, Durango, CO
81301-8136 or send e-mail to <POWERS_W%FLC@VAXF.COLORADO.EDU>.

                   ACCESSING AND SUBSCRIBING TO CSGnet

CSGnet can also be accessed via Usenet where it is listed as the
newsgroup "bit.listserv.csg-l" or "bit.sci.behavior-purposive"

To subscribe to the listserv version of CSGnet, and learn about options &
commands, subscribers and archives, send a message to

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                        as an example only)

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For more information about accessing CSGnet, contact Gary Cziko, the
network manager, at <G-CZIKO@UIUC.EDU>.

                       GOPHER AND WORLD-WIDE WEB

A number of documents as well as MS-DOS and Macintosh computer programs
can be obtained via Gopher and the World-Wide Web (WWW site is currently
under construction).

For access via Gopher, connect to gopher.ed.uiuc.edu and follow the path:

Higher Education Resources/
Professional societies & journals/
Control Systems Group

or from your favorite Gopher server follow the path:

Other Gopher and Information Servers/
North America/
USA/
illinois/
University of Ill.--College of Education/
Higher Education Resources/
Professional societies & journals/
Control Systems Group

The WWW address for the CSG homepage (under construction) is http://www.ed.uiuc.
edu/csg/csg.html. We are currently experimenting with
providing archives of CSGnet discussions via WWW. You can also access the
CSG Gopher server from the WWW homepage.

                               REFERENCES

Here are some selected books, papers and computer programs on Perceptual
Control Theory. For a very complete list of CSG-related publications, get
the file biblio.pct from the fileserver as described above. See order
forms at the end.
* * * * * * * *

Bourbon, WT, KE Copeland, VR Dyer, WK Harman & BL Mosely (1990).
On the accuracy and reliability of predictions by control- system theory.
Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 1331-1338. The first of a 20-year series
demonstrating the long-term reliability and stability of predictions
generated by the PCT model.

Bourbon, W. Tom (In Press). Perceptual Control Theory. In: HL Roitblat &
J-A Meyer (eds.). Comparative approaches to cognitive science. Cambridge,
MA: MIT Press. Chapter surveys applications of PCT modeling by Bill
Powers and Greg Williams (pointing, from the ARM/LITTLE MAN program); by
Rick Marken and Bill Powers (movement "up a gradient" by E. coli), by
Bill Powers, Clark Mcphail and Chuck Tucker (social movement and static
formations, from the GATHERINGS program), and by Bourbon (tracking). The
PCT model is contrasted with some of the mainstream models and theories
presented at the workshop.

Cziko, Gary A. (1992). Purposeful behavior as the control of perception:
Implications for educational research. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER, 21(9),
10-18, 27. Introduction to PCT and implications for educational research.

Cziko, Gary A. (1992). Perceptual control theory: One threat to
educational research not (yet?) faced by Amundson, Serlin, and Lehrer.
EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER, 21(9), 25-27. Response to critics of previous
article.

Ford, Edward E. (1989). FREEDOM FROM STRESS. Scottsdale AZ: Brandt
Publishing. A self-help book. PCT in a counseling framework.

Ford, Edward E. (1987). LOVE GUARANTEED; A BETTER MARRIAGE IN 8 WEEKS.
Scottsdale AZ: Brandt Publishing.

Ford, Edward E. (1994). DISCIPLINE FOR HOME AND SCHOOL. Scottsdale AZ:
Brandt Publishing. Teaches school personnel and parents how to deal
effectively with children.

Forssell, Dag C., (1993). Perceptual Control: A New Management Insight."
In ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT JOURNAL, 5(4), 17-25.

Forssell, Dag C. (Ed.), (1994). PERCEPTUAL CONTROL THEORY: DOS COMPUTER
DEMONSTRATION, TUTORIALS, SIMULATIONS, EXPLANATIONS. 1.44 MB 3 1/2" disk
(1 ea) or 1.2 MB 5 1/4" disk (2 ea). May be freely copied. $10 U.S. by
air worldwide. Write: Purposeful Leadership, 23903 Via Flamenco,
Valencia, CA, USA. Also available via anonymous FTP at biome.bio.ns.ca:
/msm/ftp/pub/csg/pctdemos/

Forssell, Dag C., (1994). MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP: INSIGHT FOR
CONSISTENT PRACTICE. Objective: Committment to common goals, high
performance, consistent results and mutual satisfaction. A collection of
articles and working papers introducing and applying PCT in the context
of business and industry.

Gibbons, Hugh. (1990). THE DEATH OF JEFFREY STAPLETON: EXPLORING THE WAY
LAWYERS THINK. Concord, NH: Franklin Pierce Law Center. A text for law
students using control theory.

Hershberger, Wayne. (Ed.). (1989). VOLITIONAL ACTION: CONATION AND
CONTROL (Advances in Psychology No. 62). NY: North-Holland. 16 of 25
articles on or about PCT.

Marken, Richard S. (Ed.). (1990). Purposeful Behavior: The control theory
approach. AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST, 34(1). (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Publications) 11 articles on control theory.

Marken, Richard S. (1992). MIND READINGS: EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF
PURPOSE.
NC: New View. Research papers exploring control.

McClelland, Kent. (In press). Perceptual Control and Social Power.
SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES.

McPhail, Clark. (1990). THE MYTH OF THE MADDING CROWD.
New York: Aldine de Gruyter. Introduces control theory to explain group
behavior.

McPhail, Clark., Powers, William T., & Tucker, Charles W. (1992).
Simulating individual and collective action In temporary gatherings.
SOCIAL SCIENCE COMPUTER REVIEW, 10(1), 1-28. Computer simulation of
control systems in groups.

Petrie, Hugh G. (1981). THE DILEMMA OF INQUIRY AND LEARNING.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Powers, William T. (1973). BEHAVIOR: THE CONTROL OF PERCEPTION.
Hawthorne, NY: Aldine DeGruyter. The basic text.

Powers, William T. (1989). LIVING CONTROL SYSTEMS: SELECTED PAPERS.
NC: New View. Previously published papers, 1960- 1988.

Powers, William T. (1992). LIVING CONTROL SYSTEMS II: SELECTED PAPERS.
NC: New View. Previously unpublished papers, 1959- 1990

Richardson, George P. (1991). FEEDBACK THOUGHT IN SOCIAL SCIENCE AND
SYSTEMS THEORY.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. A review
of systems thinking, including PCT.

Robertson, Richard J. and Powers, William T. (Eds.). (1990).
INTRODUCTION TO MODERN PSYCHOLOGY: THE CONTROL THEORY VIEW.
NC: New View. College-level text.

Runkel, Philip J. (1990). CASTING NETS AND TESTING SPECIMENS.
New York: Praeger. When statistics are appropriate; when models are
required.

                             * * * * * * * *
                               ORDER FORMS

···

-----------------------------------------------------------------
A free 20 page PCT Resource Guide with brief introductions and more
detail on the references listed above and a few more -- publishers,
books, articles, videos, seminars, and the DOS demonstration disk --
may be obtained by sending a note with

1) a self addressed, stamped (55 cents) envelope, or

2) two "international reply" coupons - almost every post office in
   the world sells them.

3) a personal note and request without either of the above

to: Dag Forssell, PCT Introduction and Resource Guide
     23903 Via Flamenco
     Valencia, California, 91355-2808 USA.

The order forms below are reproduced from this Guide. All prices
current as of December, 1994.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
New View: Fred Good Telephone: (919) 942-8491
P.O. Box 3021 Chapel Hill, NC 27515-3021 USA Fax: (919)942-3760

___ ea INTRODUCTION TO MODERN PSYCHOLOGY @ $25.00 _______
___ ea LIVING CONTROL SYSTEMS @ $16.50 _______
___ ea LIVING CONTROL SYSTEMS II @ $22.00 _______
___ ea MIND READINGS @ $18.00 _______
North Carolina residents add sales tax, 6%. Tax _______
Shipping & Handling (ask for schedule) per order _______
Prepaid: Check, money order Total _______

NAME ______________________________Phone(______)_______-__________

ADDRESS
__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------
Purposeful Leadership: Dag Forssell Telephone: (805) 254-1195
23903 Via Flamenco, Valencia, CA 91355-2808 USA Fax:(805) 254-7956

___ ea Management and Leadership: Insight for ... @ $20.00 ______
___ ea PCTdemos. DOS program disk __ 31/2" __51/4" @ $10.00 ______
___ ea Rubber Band Demo. Video & Script 63 minutes @ $20.00 ______
___ ea PCT supports TQM. Video 117 minutes @ $20.00 ______
___ ea 1994 CSG conference. 3 videos, 16 hours. @ $30.00______
___ ea Freedom From Stress. Book by Ed Ford @$10.00 ______
California residents please add sales tax, 8.25%.Tax ______
Shipping & Handling (world wide) per order _5.00_
Prepaid: Check, money order Total ______

NAME _____________________________
Phone__________________________

ADDRESS
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------
Brandt Publishing: Edward E. Ford Telephone & Fax:
(602) 991-4860 10209 North 56th Street, Scottsdale, AZ 85253-
1130 USA

___ ea Freedom From Stress, Book @ $10.00 _______
___ ea Love Guaranteed, Book @ $ 9.00 _______
___ ea Love Guaranteed, Video @ $20.00 _______
___ ea Discipline for Home and School, Book @ $10.00 _______
Arizona residents please add sales tax, 6%. Tax _______
Shipping & Handling (world wide) per order _3.50__
Prepaid: Check, money order Total _______

NAME______________________________
Phone__________________________

ADDRESS
__________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

------------------------------------------------------------------
Journal Marketing, Sage Publications Phone orders:
(805) 499-0721 2455 Teller Rd, Newbury Park, CA 91320 USA
Fax: (805) 499-0871

American Behavioral Scientist, Volume 34, Number 1 Sept/Oct 1990
Stock number 201238 Richard S. Marken, Editor
Purposeful Behavior; The Control Theory Approach,
___ ea Price for individuals and companies: @ $11.20 _______
___ ea Price for institutions and libraries: @ $22.40
_______
California residents add sales tax 7.25%. Tax _______
Shipping & Handling (world wide) per order _2.00__
Prepaid: Check, money order, credit cards Total _______

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------------------------------------------------------------------
Elsevier Science Phone orders: (212) 633-3650
655 Ave of the Americas New York, NY 10010 USA Fax: (212)633-3680

___ ea Volitional Action, Conation and Control, Hershberger, Ed.
ISBN: 0-444-88318-5 @ $155.50 _______
New York residents add sales tax Tax _______
Shipping included with prepaid orders (within USA) _______
Check, money order, credit cards, P.O's Total _______

NAME ______________________________
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__________________________________________________________________

Outside USA: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.
P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, The Netherlands

------------------------------------------------------------------
Aldine de Gruyter Phone orders: (914) 747-0110
200 Saw Mill River Rd, Hawthorne, NY 10532 USA Fax: (914)747-1326

___ ea Behavior: The Control of Perception by William T. Powers
Clothbound ISBN 0-202-25113-6 @ $41.95 _______

The Myth of the Madding Crowd by Clark McPhail
___ ea Clothbound ISBN 0-202-30424-8 @ $47.95 ______
___ ea Paperbound ISBN 0-202-30375-6 @ $24.95 _______
New York residents add sales tax Tax _______
Ship: $4 1st book, $1 per add'l.(Outside US double) _______
Check, money order, credit cards Total _______

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------------------------------------------------------------------

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