Temporal coding refs: correlograms, psychophysics, physiology

Some references on temporal coding in the brain, psychophysics of
        temporally induced percepts (e.g. color), correlograms,
        correlation models, etc, etc, etc.

(warning: several pages)

Auditory Demonstrations (compact disk) can be obtained from:
        The Acoustical Society of America
        500 Sunnyside Blvd.
        Woodbury, NY 10797 (about $40, I think)

Adamczak, Wolfgang. The amacrine cells as an important
        processing site of pattern-induced flicker colors.
        Vision Research 21 (1981): 1639-1642.
        Lateral timing relations in the retina.
Bialek, W., F. Rieke, R. R. van Stevenink, and Warland
        de Ruyter D. Reading a neural code.
        Science 252 (28 June 1991): 1854-1856.
        Timing patterns in insect vision.
Boring, Edwin G. Sensation and Perception in the History
        of Experimental Psychology.
        New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1942.
        Discussion of sensory coding, place and time.
Braitenberg, V. Functional interpretation of cerebellar
        histology.Nature 190 (1961): 539-540. Cerebellar timing
Braitenberg, Valentino. Is the cerebellar cortex a
        biological clock in the millisecond range?
        Prog. Brain Res. 25 (1967): 334-346.
Bullock, T.H. Signals and neural coding.
        In The Neurosciences: A Study Program,
        ed. G.C. Quarton, T. Melnechuck, & F.O. Schmitt.
        347-352. New York: Rockefeller U Press, 1967.
Bullock, Theodore Holmes. Electroception.
        Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 5 (1982): 121-70.
        Fine timing system par excellence.
Campenhausen, C von. The colors of Benham's top
        under metameric illuminations.
        Vision Res. 9 (1969): 677-682.
Campenhausen, C. von. Detection of short time
        delays between photic stimuli by means
        of pattern induced flicker colors (PIFCs).
        Vision Res. 13 (1973): 2261-2271.
Campenhausen, C. von, K. Hofstetter, M.F. Schramme,
        and M.F. Tritsch. Color induction via non-opponent
        lateral interactions in the human retina.
        Vision Res. 32 (5 1992): 913-923.
Cariani, P and B. Delgutte. The pitch of complex sounds
        is simply coded in interspike interval distributions
        of auditory nerve fibers.Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 18 (1992): 383.
Cariani, P. and B. Delgutte. Interspike interval distributions
        of auditory nerve fibers in response to concurrent
        vowels with same and different fundamental frequencies.
        Assoc. Res. Otolaryng. (ARO) Abstr. (1993):
Carr, Catherine, E., Walter Heiligenberg, and Gary J. Rose.
        A time-comparison circuit in the electric fish midbrain.
        I. Behavior and physiology.J. Neuroscience 6 (1 1986a):
        107-119. Hard to understand what's happening, but intriguing.
        Neural timing estimations on the sub-microsecond scale!
Carr, Catherine, E., Leonard Maler, and Barbara Taylor.
        A time-comparison circuit in the electric fish midbrain.
        II. Functional morphology.J. Neuroscience 6 (5 1986b):
        1372-1383. Electric fish are amazing.
Carr, Catherine E. Processing of temporal information in
        the brain.Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 16 (1993): 223-243.
        (Review: mostly timing in auditory localization).
Chung, S.H., S.A. Raymond, and J.Y. Lettvin.
        Multiple meaning in single visual units.
        Brain Behav Evol 3 (1970): 72-101. Visual multiplexing
        via interspike intervals.
Covey, Ellen. Temporal Neural Coding in Gustation.
        Ph.D., Duke University, 1980.
        Taste quality correlated with temporal discharge patterns.
de Boer, E. On the "Residue" and Auditory Pitch Perception.
        In Handbook of Sensory Physiology, ed. W.D Keidel
        and W.D. Neff. 479-583. 3. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1976.
        Pitch psychophysics review. Debate between time and place
        models of pitch.
Delgutte, B. Representation of speech-like sounds in the discharge
        patterns of auditory-nerve fibers.
        J Acoust Soc Am 68 (1980): 843-857. Temporal patterns in
        single auditory nerve fibers.
Delgutte, B. and P. Cariani. Coding of the pitch of harmonic and
         inharmonic complex tones in the interspike intervals of
        auditory nerve fibers. In: The Processing of
        Speech, M.E.H. Schouten, ed, Berlin,
        Mouton-De Gruyer, pp. 37-45. (1992).
Emmers, Raimond. Pain: A Spike-Interval Coded Message in the Brain.
        New York: Raven Press, 1981. Multimodal complex temporal
        coding in thalamus & cortex.
Evans, E.F. Place and time coding of frequency in the peripheral
        auditory system: some physiological pros and cons.
        Audiology 17 (1978): 369-420. Review.
Festinger, Leon , Mark R. Allyn, and Charles W. White.
        The perception of color with achromatic stimulation.
        Vision Res. 11 (1971): 591-612. Seminal paper on temporal
        modulation and psychophysics of color vision.
Fiorentini, A. and D.M. MacKay. Temporal factors in pattern vision.
        Quart. J. Exp. Psychol. 17 (1965): 282-291.
Freeman, J. A. and C. N. Nicholson. Space-time transformation
        in the frog cerebellum through an intrinisic tapped delay line.
        Nature 226 (May 16 1970): 640-642.
Ghitza, O. Auditory nerve representation as a basis for speech processing.
         In Advances in Speech Signal Processing, ed. S Furui and M.M.
        Sondhi. 453-485. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1992.
Goldstein, J.L. An optimum processor theory for the central
        formation of the pitch of complex tones.J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54
        (6 1973): 1496-1516.
Goldstein, J. L. and P. Srulovicz. Auditory-nerve spike intervals
        as an adequate basis for aural frequency measurement.
        In Psychophysics and Physiology of Hearing, ed. E.F.
        Evans and J.P. Wilson. London: Academic Press, 1977.
Heiligenberg, Walter. The neural basis of behavior: a neuroethological
        view.Annu.Rev. Neurosci. 14 (1991): 247-67. More electric fish.
Huggins, W.H. A Note on Autocorrelation Analysis of Speech Sounds.
        JASA 26 (5 1954): 790-792. Pros and cons of
        autocorrelation and other types of correlation anaylsis.
Jarvis, J.R. On Fechner-Benham Subjective Color.Vision Research 17
        (1976): 445-451.
Kiang, N.Y.S., T. Watanabe, E.C. Thomas, and L.F. Clark. Discharge
        Patterns of Single Fibers in the Cat's Auditory Nerve.
        Cambridge: MIT Press, 1965b.
        Seminal work on timing patterns in auditory nerve fibers.
Kim, D.O. and G. Leonard. Pitch-period following response of cat
        cochlear nucleus neurons to speech sounds.
        In Basic Issues in Hearing, ed. H. Duifhuis, J.W. Horst,
        and H.P. Wit. 252-260. London: Academic Press, 1988.
Kim, D.O., W.S. Rhode, and S.R. Greenberg. Responses of cochlear
        nucleus neurons to speech signals: neural encoding of pitch,
        intensity, and other parameters.In Auditory Frequency Selectivity,
        ed. B.C.J. Moore and R.D. Patterson. 281-288. New York:
        Plenum Press, 1986.
Kim, D.O., J.G. Sirianni, and S.O. Chang. Responses of DCN-PVCN neurons and
        auditory nerve fibers in unanesthetized decerebrate cats
        to AM and pure tones: Analysis with autocorrelation/power-spectrum.
        Hearing Research 45 (1990): 95-113.
Kozak, W.M. and H.J. Reitboeck. Color-dependent distribution of
        spikes in single optic tract fibers of the cat.
        Vision Research 14 (1974): 405-419. Different
        wavelengths produce different interspike interval distributions.
Kozak, W.M., H.J. Reitboeck, and F. Meno. Subjective Color Sensations
        Elicited by Moving Patterns: Effect of Luminance.
        In Seeing Contour and Colour, ed. J.J. Kulikowski Dickenson,
        C.M. 294-310. New York: Pergamon Press, 1989.
Langner, Gerald. Periodicity coding in the auditory system.
        Hearing Research 60 (1992): 115-142.
Lazzaro, John and Carver Mead. Silicon modeling of pitch perception.
        PNAS, USA 86 (1989): 9597-9601. Licklider Analog
        VLSI implementation (autocorrelation network).
Lestienne, R. and B.L. Strehler. Time structure and stimulus
        dependence of precise replicating patterns present in
        monkey cortical neuronal spike trains.Brain Research
        43 (1987): 214-238.
Licklider, J.C.R. A duplex theory of pitch perception.VII (4 1951): 128-134.
Licklider, J.C.R. "Periodicity" pitch and "place" pitch. JASA 26 (1954): 945.
Licklider, J.C.R. Auditory frequency analysis. In Information Theory,
        ed. C. Cherry. 253-268. London: Butterworth, 1956.
Licklider, J.C.R. Three auditory theories. In Psychology:
        A Study of a Science. Study I. Conceptual and Systematic,
        ed. Sigmund Koch. 41-144.
        Volume I. Sensory, Perceptual, and Physiological Formulations.
        New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959. Big overview and grand synthesis.
Longuet-Higgins, H.C. The non-local storage and associative retrieval
        of spatio-temporal patterns. In Information Processing in the
        Nervous System, ed. K.N. Liebovic.
        New York: Springer Verlag, 1969.
Longuet-Higgins, H.C. A mechanism for the storage of temporal correlations.
        In The Computing Neuron, ed. R. Durbin,
        C. Miall, and G. Mitchison. 99-104.Addison-Wesley, 1989.
Lyon, R.F. Computational models of neural auditory processing.
        In IEEE Intl. Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal
        Processing (ICASSP) in San Diego, March, 1984, Year.
MacKay, D.M. Self-organization in the time domain.
        In Self-Organizing Systems 1962, ed. M.C. Yovitts, G.T. Jacobi,
        and G.D. Goldstein. 37-48. Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1962.
MacKay, D.M. and W.S. McCulloch. The limiting information
        capacity of a neuronal link. Bull. Math. Biophys. 14 (1952):
        Information theory: interspike interval vs. average rate codes.
        Carrying capacity.
Macrides, Foteos and Stephan L. Chorover. Olfactory bulb units:
        activity correlated with inhalation cycles and odor quality.
        Science 175 (7 January 1972): 84-86.
        Odor-dependent time patterns.
McClurkin, John W., Timothy J. Gawne, Lance M. Optican,
        and Barry J. Richmond.
        Lateral geniculate neurons in behaving primates.
        II. Encoding of visual information in the temporal
        shape of the response. J. Neurophys. 66 (3 1991a): 794-308.
        Time domain multiplexing in the visual system. More recent
        work has extended this analysis to color (V1, V2, V3, V4).
McClurkin, John W., Timothy J. Gawne, Barry J. Richmond,
        Lance M. Optican, and David Lee Robinson.
        Lateral geniculate neurons in behaving primates.
         I. Responses to two-dimensional stimuli.
        J. Neurophys. 66 (3 1991b): 777-793.
Meddis, R. and M.J. Hewitt. Virtual pitch and phase sensitivity
        of a computer model of the auditory periphery.
        I. Pitch identification. JASA 89 (1991a): 2866-2882.
        Time domain autocorrelation model for pitch.
Meddis, R. and M.J. Hewitt. Virtual pitch and phase sensitivity
        of a computer model of the auditory periphery.
        II. Phase sensitivity JASA 89 (1991b): 2883-2894.
Moore, B.C.J. Introduction to the Psychology of Hearing.
        Second edition ed., London: Academic Press, 1982.
        Interspike interval model for pitch.
Morley, J.W., Archer, J.S., Ferrington, D.G., Rowe, M.J., and
        Turman, A.B. Neural Coding of Complex Tactile Vibration.
        In Information Processing in Mammalian
        Auditory and Tactile Systems, 127-140. Alan R. Liss, 1990.
        Temporal patterns in perception of vibotactile stimuli.
Morrell, F. Electrical Signs of Sensory Coding.
        In The Neurosciences: A Study Program, ed.
        G.C. Quarton Melnechuck, T., and Schmitt, F.O.
        452-469. New York: Rockefeller U. Press, 1967.
        Periodicity-assimilating cortical units,
Mountcastle, Vernon. The Problem of Sensing and the Neural
        Coding of Sensory Events.In The Neurosciences:
        A Study Program, ed. G.C. Quarton Melnechuk, T.,
        and Schmitt, F.O. New York: Rockefeller U. Press,
        1967. Neural coding discussion.
Mountcastle, V.B. et al. Cortical Neuronal Mechanisms in
        Flutter-Vibration Studied in Unanesthetized Monkeys.
        Neuronal Periodicity and Frequency Discrimination.
        J. Neurophys. 32 (1969): 452-485. Vibrotactile patterns.
Nordmark, Jan O. Frequency and periodicity analysis.
        In Handbook of Perception, Vol. IV, Academic Press, 1978.
        Periodicity pitch review.
Pabst, M., H.J. Reitboeck, and R. Eckhorn.
        A model of preattentive texture region
        definition based on texture analysis.
        In Models of Brain Function, ed. Rodney M.J.
        Cotterill. 137-150. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Press, 1989.
        Time domain model for texture.
Palmer, A.R. Segregation of the responses to paired vowels in the
        auditory nerve of the guinea pig using autocorrelation.
        In The auditory processing of speech, ed. Schouten.
        115 - 124. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1992.
        Autocorrelation functions and interspike interval
        codes in the auditory system.
Palmer, A.R., I.M. Winter, and C.J. Darwin. The representation
        of steady-state vowel sounds in the temporal discharge
        patterns of the guinea pig cochlear nerve and
        primarylike cochlear nucleus neurons.
        JASA. 79 (1 1986): 100-113.
Perkell, D.H and T.H. Bullock. Neural Coding.
        Neurosciences Research Program, 1968.
        Neurosciences Research Program Bulletin Vol. 6, No. 3.
        Catalog of different candidate neural codes
        and evidence for them. (seminal study).
Pitts, W. and W.S. McCulloch. How we know universals:
        the perception of auditory and visual forms.
        Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 9 (1947): 1947.
        Scanning model for form perception. Classic.
Pratt, Gill. Pulse Computation.Ph.D.,MIT, 1990.
        Time domain neural network paradigm using
        conduction blocks to parse spike trains.
Raymond, S.A. and J.Y. Lettvin. Aftereffects of activity in peripheral
        axons as a clue to nervous coding.
        In Physiology and Pathobiology of Axons, ed.
        S.G. Waxman. New York: Raven Press, 1978.
        Time domain multiplexing model using conduction blocks
        for parsing spike trains in axon trees of single neurons.
Reichardt, Werner. Autocorrelation, a principle for the evaluation
        of sensory information by the central nervous system.
        In Sensory Communication, ed. Walter A. Rosenblith.
        303-317. New York: MIT Press/John Wiley, 1961.
        (Spatial) Autocorrelation theory.
Reitboeck, H.J., M. Pabst, and R. Eckhorn.
        Texture description in the time domain.In
        Computer Simulation in Brain Science,
        ed. R.M.J. Cotterill. Cambridge, England:
        Cambridge University Press, 1988.
        Temporal model of visual texture.
        Spatial intervals get converted to time intervals and
        timing relations.
Richmond, B.J., L.M. Optican, and T.J. Gawne. Neurons use multiple
        messages encoded in temporally modulated spike trains to
        represent pictures.In Seeing Contour and
        Colour, ed. J.J. Kulikowski and C.M. Dickenson.
        705-713. New York: Pergamon Press, 1989.
Richmond, B.J. , L.M. Opticon, M. Podell, and H. Spitzer.
        Temporal encoding of two-dimensional patterns by single units
        in primate inferior temporal cortex. I. Response characteristics.
        II. Quantification of response waveform
        III. Information-theoretic analysis.
        J. Neurophys. 57 (1 1987): 132-178. Multiplexing in vision.
Rioul, Olivier and Martin Vetterli. Wavelets and signal processing.
        IEEE SP Magazine Oct 91 (1991): 14-38.
        The autocorrelogram implements a wavelet-like representation
        (scalogram: longer time windows for lower frequencies).
Rose, J.E., J.R. Brugge, D.J. Anderson, & J.E. Hind. Phase-locked
        response to low-frequency tones in single auditory nerve fibers
        of the squirrel monkey.J. Neurophysiol. 30 (1967): 769-793.
        Seminal timing paper in the auditory nerve.
Rowe, Mark. Impulse patterning in central neurons for vibrotactile coding.In
        Information Processing in Mammalian Auditory and Tactile Systems,
        111-125. Alan R. Liss, Inc, 1990.
Secker-Walker, H.E. and C.L. Searle. Time-domain analysis of
        auditory-nerve-fiber firing rates JASA 88 (3 1990): 1427-1436.
        Nice neurograms of temporal activity in the auditory nerve
        array in response to vowels.
Sheppard, Joseph .J. Human Color Perception: A Critical Study of
        the Experimental Foundation. New York: American Elsevier,
        1968. Excellent review of temporal induction of color percepts.
        Discussion of Butterfield color encoder for black&white TV
Simmons, James A. A view of the world through the bat's ear:
        The formation of acoustic images in echolocation.
        In Neurobiology of Cognition, ed. Peter D. Eimas and Albert
        M. Galaburda. 155-199. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990.
        Integrating time and frequency maps in the bat.
Simmons, James A., Cynthia Moss F., and Michael Ferragamo.
        Convergence of temporal and spectral information into acoustic
        images of complex sonar targets perceived by the echolocating bat,
        Eptesicus fuscus.J Comp Physiol A 166 (1990): 449-470.
        Bats are amazing. Temporal judgements on the usec level and below.
Slaney, Malcolm and Richard Lyon. Apple Hearing Demo Reel
        (videotape). Apple Technical Report #25,
        Apple Computer, Inc., 20525 Mariani Ave., Cupertino, CA
        95014. Videotape of correlograms of an auditory nerve
        array responding to music, speech, and auditory "illusions"
        Quite compelling.
Small, A.M. Periodicity pitch.In Foundations of Modern Auditory
        Theory, ed. J.V. Tobias. 3-54. I. NY: Academic Press, 1970. Review.
Srulovicz, P. and J.L. Goldstein. A central spectrum model: a synthesis of
        auditory-nerve timing and place cues in monaural communication of
        frequency spectrum. JASA 73 (4 1983): 1266-1276.
Stevens, K.N. Autocorrelation analysis of speech sounds
        JASA 22 (6 1950): 769-771.
Strehler, Bernard L. and Remy Lestienne. Evidence of precise
        time-coded symbols and memory of patterns in monkey cortical
        neuronal spike trains. PNAS 83 (1986): 9812-9816.
Torras i Genis, Carme. Temporal-Pattern Learning in Neural Models.
        Vol. 63. Lecture Notes in Biomathematics,
        Brain Theory Subseries, ed. S. Levin. Berlin: Springer-
        Verlag, 1985. Adaptive neural networks using tunable oscillators.
Tritsch, Mark F. Fourier analysis of the stimuli for
        pattern-induced colors.
        Vision Res. 32 (8 1992): 1461-1470.
Uttal, W.R. The Psychobiology of Sensory Coding. New York: Harper & Row,
        1973. Neural coding.
Uttal, W.R. An Autocorrelation Theory of Form Detection.
        New York: Wiley, 1975.
        Spatial autocorrelation in visual texture and form perception.
Uttal, W.R. On Seeing Forms. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1988.
        Excellent discussion of the problem of form perception (Gestalts).
van Esch, A. , van 't Veld, and J.J. Koenderinck.
        A temporal red-green opponent mechanism.
        Biol. Cybern. 58 (1988): 329-355. How timing relations
        might underlie (discharge rate) color opponency.
Van Noorden, L. Two channel pitch perception.
        In Music, Mind and Brain, ed. M.
        Clynes. 251-269. New York: Plenum, 1982.
        Temporal pitch model.
Voigt, H.F., M.B. Sachs, and E.D. Young.
        Representation of whispered vowels in discharge patterns
        of auditory-nerve fibers.
        Hearing Res. 8 (1982): 49-58.
        More information in interspike intervals.
Wasserman, Gerald S. Isomorphism, task dependence, and the
        multiple meaning theory of neural coding.
        In Biological Signals, Karger, 1992. Multiplexing.
Wever, Ernest Glen. Theory of Hearing. New York: Wiley, 1949.
        Temporal (volley theory) of hearing.
Wever, Ernest Glen and Charles W. Bray.
        The perception of low tones and the resonance-volley theory.
        J. Psychol. 3 (1937): 101-114. Classic auditory nerve timing paper.
Windhorst, Uwe. How Brain-Like is the Spinal Cord?
        Interacting Cell Assemblies in the Nervous System. Berlin:
        Springer-Verlag, 1988. Timing/correlation in the spinal cord.
Young, R.A. and R. De Valois. Temporal-chromatic interactions
        in monkey visual system.In (ARVO), Sarasota, Florida: 1977.
        Physiology of temporally-induced color.
Young, R.S.L., R.E. Cole, M. Gambel, and M.D. Rayner.
        Subjective patterns elicited by light flicker.
        Vision Research 15 (1975): 1291-1293.
Zrenner, Eberhart. Neurophysiological Aspects of Color
        Vision in Primates. Comparative Studies on Simian
        Retinal Ganglion Cells and the Human
        Visual System. Vol. 9. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1983.