block diagrams

[From Stefan Balke (01.03.13)]

Rick Marken (01.03.13.1400)

First, I think it's important to be relatively clear about the
variables each party to the interaction is controlling.

Okay, that convinces me. I tried to be general in my first gif. I attach two
gifs with new elaborations of your input. Now the block diagrams are more
specific. It was a great pleasure to puzzle around having the feeling to
learn something.

Hello Peter Burke,

I think that your diagramm is also in a general mode.

Best regards, Stefan

Attachment Converted: "d:\data\email\Attach\TwoPersonModel2.gif"
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end

[From Rick Marken (01.03.15.0730)]

Stefan Balke (01.03.13)--

I attach two gifs with new elaborations of your input. Now the block
diagrams are more specific. It was a great pleasure to puzzle around
having the feeling to learn something.

Great! I have one more little suggestion. I think you should re-name
the possible reference levels in the diagram. You show two levels
for the teacher's reference for disruptiveness and two for the
student's reference for scolding. The two levels for scolding are
fine (they imply a continuum that goes from high to low levels of
scolding) but the two levels of disruptiveness could be better. You
label the two levels as "small" and "irrelevant"; I would say the
levels should be labeled "low" and "high". The teacher can want
to see very low levels of disruptiveness or very high levels of
disruptiveness. Most teachers probably are willing to want some
intermediate level of disruptiveness (though closer to the low end).
Having a reference for some moderate level of disruptiveness is
probably one good way to keep the teacher/student conflict level
down.

Hello Peter Burke,

I think that your diagramm is also in a general mode.

My main problem with Peter's diagram was that he seemed to
have put the perceptual signals in the environment outside
the control systems.

Best regards

Rick

···

--
Richard S. Marken Phone or Fax: 310 474-0313
MindReadings.com mailto: marken@mindreadings.com
www.mindreadings.com

[From Stefan Balke (01.03.15)]

Rick Marken (01.03.15.0730)

... the two levels of disruptiveness could be better. You

label the two levels as "small" and "irrelevant"; I would say the
levels should be labeled "low" and "high". The teacher can want
to see very low levels of disruptiveness or very high levels of
disruptiveness.

Do you think that a teacher wants to see a very high level of
disruptiveness? Do you think that certain teachers control for a high level
of disruptiveness? That´s hard to imagine, but of course it could happen. I
thought that "irrelevant" would be a better description of the other end of
the continuum. That leads to the question which dimensions are usually
combined in a continuum.

However, I feel much better now, with this diagrams, because it gives the
possibility to show all kinds of interactions on one view.

Best regards, Stefan

[From Rick Marken (01.03.15.1450)]

Stefan Balke (01.03.15)--

Do you think that a teacher wants to see a very high level of
disruptiveness?

I think this would, indeed, be very unusual. The point of
showing the range of reference states for disruptiveness (or
any other perception) is simply to make it clear that this
perception _could be_ brought to any one of these different
states if some higher level system had to have the perception
in that state. But I actually can think of situations where a
teacher might want to perceive a high level of disruptiveness;
for example, when the class is putting on a play about a dys-
functional classroom. This is obviously a very rare situation;
I'm sure that teachers would say that they never want to
perceive a high level of disruptiveness. But sometimes they
might. By the same token, I would say that I never want to
perceive a high level of exhaustion but I plan to go to the
gym later today and purposefully produce as high a level of
exhaustion as I can produce in myself.

However, I feel much better now, with this diagrams, because it
gives the possibility to show all kinds of interactions on one
view.

Great! I'm really glad to hear it.

Best regards

Rick

···

--
Richard S. Marken Phone or Fax: 310 474-0313
MindReadings.com mailto: marken@mindreadings.com
www.mindreadings.com

[From Bill Powers (2001.03.16.0622 MST)]

Stefan Balke (01.03.13)--

I couldn't read the attachment in your earlier text and I can't read it in
this message, either. Instead of coming through as an attachment, the files
are part of the text. When I isolate what I think is the MIME part and try
to decode it with MIME64, I get an error message. Or are you using BINHEX,
by chance? Could it be that you're using an Apple computer and didn't set
some option?

Best,

Bill P.

[From Stefan Balke (01.03.16)]

from Bill Powers (2001.03.16.0622 MST)

Stefan Balke (01.03.13)--

I couldn't read the attachment in your earlier text and I can't read it in
this message, either. Instead of coming through as an attachment, the

files

are part of the text. When I isolate what I think is the MIME part and try
to decode it with MIME64, I get an error message. Or are you using BINHEX,
by chance? Could it be that you're using an Apple computer and didn't set
some option?

I used gif-formated attachments with my MS Outlook Express PC programm. If
you give me a fax number, I send it that way.

Best regards, Stefan

[From Bill Powers (2000.10.08.0535 MDT)]

Bruce Abbott (2000.10.07.0920 EST)--

...Here's a
possible (but highly oversimplified) model that would conform to the part of
my proposal that has to do with taste and pleasure:

     +--->| s |---+-> p_taste --->C<---r_taste
     > > > ^ +
-->q1<-+-| o |---)---------------e |
        > > > e_pleasure
        > v |
        > >sp |---> p_pleasure------>C<-------r_pleasure
        > + ^
        > e_nut
        V |
   p_nutrients--->C<---r_nutrients
        ^
        >
     metabolic
     disturbance
   (nutrient loss)

I see that an increasing pleasure error will raise the reference level for
taste (the plus sign). A decreasing e_pleasure therefore decrease r_taste.
Presumably, as the pleasure signal approaches the reference level, the
pleasure error will decrease, so that when the pleasure signal is very near
its reference level, the error signal e_pleasure will approach zero.
Perhaps you need an integrator between e_pleasure and r_taste, so that when
pleasure is at its reference level, there will be a nonzero reference level
for the taste.

If taste is less than r_taste, the error will increase the output and q1.
This will increase p_nutrients, which will decrease e_nut, This will
decrease p_pleasure. So perhaps you need another integrator somwhere in
this loop.

You say

The hunger represented by the positive e_nut amplifies the pleasure

produced >by the taste of the milk, raising the reference r-taste for
tasting the milk.

However, you show e-nut _adding to_ the pleasure signal rather than
multiplying (amplifying) it. I suggest using "*" to indicate multiplication.

In any case, you need to convert this diagram to a simulation to test it;
as drawn, I don't think it will behave as you say it will. It's not that
the model is oversimplified: it's not organized to behave in the way you
describe.

Best,

Bill P.

[From Rick Marken (2000.10.08.1620)]

Bill Powers (2000.10.08.0535 MDT) to Bruce Abbott (2000.10.07.
0920 EST) --

In any case, you need to convert this diagram to a simulation
to test it; as drawn, I don't think it will behave as you say it
will.

Yes. I think this should be the next step. A simulation would
not only show how the model actually behaves; it would also show
whether the model can account for the behavior it is designed
to explain.

Actually, I'm not really sure I know what behavior the model is
designed to explain. It seems to me that much of the discussion
of pleasure/pain perception has been in the context of subjective
experience and anecdote. It seems to me that it was some peoples'
subjective impression that certain perceptions (like "butter
pecan ice cream") are accompanied by a seperate perception of
"pleasure" and that that's why we seek those perceptions -- to get
all that pleasure.

I spent a large part of this weekend introspecting, trying to
notice whether I was experiencing a seperate perception of pleasure
while I was experiencing perceptions that I would have described
as "pleasurable". The results of this exercise were similar to what
Bill Powers (2000.10.06.0739 MDT) described regarding "brocoli".
All I could find in my pleasurable perceptions were the perceptions
themselves -- perceptions of the taste of brocoli (which I _do_
find pleasurable), Bach, Jane Austen's prose, dancing, etc. But
I experienced no separate perception of pleasure associated with any
of these pleasurable perceptions; what I experienced was always a
particular _kind_ of perception, including perceptions of the state
of various states of my own body.

My introspection led me to the conclusion that I just happen to
like having certain perceptions at certain times: the taste of
brocoli (with butter, please) at dinner, the sound of the Bach
D minor Partita for solo violin (when I am not playing raquetball),
Sense and Sensibility (when I am not writing), and dancing with my
honey (anytime;-), etc. I also _dislike_ having certain perceptions,
like the perception of fatigue, at certain times, but I sometimes
put up with these perceptions in order to maintain other perceptions
(like dancing) in their "pleasurable" (what seemed to me to really
be their _reference_) states. At least, that's the way it seemed
to me during my perceptual Odyssey this weekend.

I look forward to seeing a working version of the model, Bruce.
Go ahead and write it in Pascal; I can probably translate it to
Visual Basic for those of us still stuck in MacLand.

Best

Rick

···

--

Richard S. Marken Phone or Fax: 310 474-0313
Life Learning Associates e-mail: marken@mindreadings.com
mindreadings.com

[From Bruce Gregory (2000.1008.2050)]

Rick Marken (2000.10.08.1620)]

Actually, I'm not really sure I know what behavior the model is
designed to explain. It seems to me that much of the discussion
of pleasure/pain perception has been in the context of subjective
experience and anecdote. It seems to me that it was some peoples'
subjective impression that certain perceptions (like "butter
pecan ice cream") are accompanied by a seperate perception of
"pleasure" and that that's why we seek those perceptions -- to get
all that pleasure.

Not in my case. I was simply pointing out that PCT-pleasure and PCT-pain
bear little resemblance to pleasure and pain. I don't feel intense pleasure
even when I am tracking very accurately. Nor do I feel great pain when
tracking badly. I am not sure why not. I am also unsure as to why I cannot
attribute PCT- pleasure to my thermostat. What's missing from the control
diagram of the thermostat and my tracking experience that is present in the
control diagram for eating butter pecan ice cream?

BG

[From Bill Powers (2000.10.08.1939 MDT)]

Bruce Gregory (2000.1008.2050)--

Not in my case. I was simply pointing out that PCT-pleasure and PCT-pain
bear little resemblance to pleasure and pain. I don't feel intense pleasure
even when I am tracking very accurately. Nor do I feel great pain when
tracking badly.

Neither do I. Some people, however, are terrified by the tracking task and
really hate it when they don't do it as well as they want to. I guess the
errors we care most about vary from person to person. I do get a sense of
pleasure when I'm tracking exceptionally well. But (see below) that
requires more than one level of perception.

The problem with introspecting concerning pleasure and pain is that no
matter what conclusion you come to, it's hard to keep your conclusion from
being shaped by what you already believe, the interpretation you're used
to. I am by no means convinced that there is no special kind of perception
involved experiencing pleasure or pain. I'm sure I experience them when
they arise (butter pecan works for me, too) much as others do. But when, as
a theoretician wanting to model this phenomenon, I try to pick out what is
different between the actual taste of the ice cream and the pleasure I get
out of it, I can't find anything to put my finger on but the taste itself,
and the feeling that I actively seek to experience it. I imagine tasting
it, and then I want to taste it in reality, which I interpret to mean that
I experience a memory of it (in imagination) and then use that memory as a
reference signal.

I'm sure of one thing: observing the pleasure requires at least two levels
of perception to be going on. One is perceiving whatever it is that is
judged pleasant, and the other is a level that looks at myself having this
experience and perceives that I am enjoying it. Without that higher level
to know that I am having pleasure, I just scarf down the butter pecan,
burp, and go on to the next thing, like any mindless slob. I agree with
you; I wouldn't call that real pleasure.

But what, then, _is_ "real" pleasure, if it is something more than the
sense of the world being, or coming to be, the way you want it to be? How
does it seem to you? Is it like a sensation? Do you feel it in a particular
place, or in a particular way? Is it the same for all pleasurable
experiences, or is one pleasure different in its pleasantness from another?
Can you really differentiate between a sensation like the taste of butter
pecan ice cream on the one hand, and the pleasure it gives you on the other
hand? That is, can you really attend to the taste without the pleasure, and
then the pleasure without the taste? I confess that I can't; the taste
itself, to me, is the pleasure. But perhaps you are able to discriminate
more finely than I can, and can distinguish between the taste and the
pleasure. If so, I would appreciate a description of what it's like for you.

I am also unsure as to why I cannot
attribute PCT- pleasure to my thermostat. What's missing from the control
diagram of the thermostat and my tracking experience that is present in the
control diagram for eating butter pecan ice cream?

One thing is that there is no second level in a thermostat to judge that a
certain temperature is giving pleasure to the thermostat. There is no
self-consciousness. It could be that pleasure is primarily a higher-level
judgement about a lower-level experience: for example,"Are we having fun yet?"

Best,

Bill P.

[From Bruce Gregory (2000.10.10.1353)]

Bill Powers (2000.10.08.1939 MDT)

I'm sure of one thing: observing the pleasure requires at least two levels
of perception to be going on. One is perceiving whatever it is that is
judged pleasant, and the other is a level that looks at myself having this
experience and perceives that I am enjoying it.

I am not so sure. Once we find that we enjoy something it seems to me quite
possible that the perception of that something is "tagged" with the label
"pleasant". Only when that expectation fails to materialize is it likely
that reorganized provides a new tag.

One thing is that there is no second level in a thermostat to judge that a
certain temperature is giving pleasure to the thermostat. There is no
self-consciousness. It could be that pleasure is primarily a higher-level
judgement about a lower-level experience: for example,"Are we having fun yet?"

Again, that might be so, but it is not obvious to me. Especially in that
you and Rick agree that you cannot separate the experience of eating butter
pecan ice cream from the experience of enjoying it.

BG

[From Rick Marken (2000.10.11.0930)]

Bill Powers (2000.10.08.1939 MDT)--

It could be that pleasure is primarily a higher-level judgement
about a lower-level experience: for example,"Are we having fun yet?"

Bruce Gregory (2000.10.10.1353)--

Again, that might be so, but it is not obvious to me. Especially
in that you and Rick agree that you cannot separate the experience
of eating butter pecan ice cream from the experience of enjoying it.

I can see, from a higher level perspective, that eating ice cream
is pleasurable. This perception of the "pleasurability" of eating
ice cream, however, is not pleasurable itself. It's a perception
_about_ another perception (eating ice cream). I thought the question
was whether there was a perception of pleasure that went along with
perceptions (such as the taste of ice cream) that we would categorize
(from a higher level perspective) as "pleasurable". It was the
existence of this pleasure perception, separate from the perception
of the taste of ice cream itself, that I could not find in my
introspections.

But, again, these introspections need have no force on Bruce Abbott's
model of behavior. I still hope Bruce will develop that model into
a working simulation so we can see what it is that the model does
that the basic hierarchical control model doesn't do.

Best

Rick

···

--
Richard S. Marken Phone or Fax: 310 474-0313
MindReadings.com mailto: marken@mindreadings.com
www.mindreadings.com

[From Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.1402)]

Rick Marken (2000.10.11.0930)

But, again, these introspections need have no force on Bruce Abbott's
model of behavior. I still hope Bruce will develop that model into
a working simulation so we can see what it is that the model does
that the basic hierarchical control model doesn't do.

The hierarchical control model, as far as I can tell, does not tell why I
am controlling one perception rather than another. I like Ben and Jerry's
Cherry Garcia ice cream, but I am not seeking it out and consuming it right
now. Why? I don't particularly like what I am doing right now, but I am
doing it. Why? The only answer I can see in HPCT is to postulate the
existence of some higher-order control system that is setting my reference
for eating Cherry Garcia very low (despite the fact that I like doing it)
and setting my reference for writing this e-mail very high (despite the
fact that dislike doing it). How can I perform the Test to determine if
such a postulated higher-order system is really present and functioning in
this way?

BG

[From Norman Hovda (2000.1011.1125 MST)]

[From Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.1402)]

The only answer I can see in HPCT is to postulate the
existence of some higher-order control system that is setting my reference
for eating Cherry Garcia very low (despite the fact that I like doing it)
and setting my reference for writing this e-mail very high (despite the
fact that dislike doing it).

It's a long shot that I understand at all what you all are writing about or
that I can pose a question that's remotely inside the ball park but here
goes...

Could it not be possible that "higher-order control system" references
are "set", and varied much more slowly over time, by some combined
mix and/or cumulative aggregate of lower-order control system outputs?

Best,
nth

[From Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.1515)]

Norman Hovda (2000.1011.1125 MST)]

Could it not be possible that "higher-order control system" references
are "set", and varied much more slowly over time, by some combined
mix and/or cumulative aggregate of lower-order control system outputs?

I fear this would be a modeler's nightmare. I suspect you'd have to show
that it can work before you'll get many to sign on.

BG

[From Rick Marken (2000.10.11.1300)]

Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.1402)--

The hierarchical control model, as far as I can tell, does not
tell why I am controlling one perception rather than another.

Actually, I think that's exactly what the hierarchical control
model tells us: we control one perception rather than another,
as necessary, as the means of controlling higher level perceptions

How can I perform the Test to determine if such a postulated
higher-order system is really present and functioning in
this way?

The same way you test to determine whether _any_ control system
is present and functioning; you do the test for the controlled
variable.

Norman Hovda (2000.1011.1125 MST)--

Could it not be possible that "higher-order control system"
references are "set", and varied much more slowly over time,
by some combined mix and/or cumulative aggregate of lower-order
control system outputs?

Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.1515) --

I fear this would be a modeler's nightmare. I suspect you'd
have to show that it can work before you'll get many to sign on.

Actually, my spreadsheet model of a hierarchy of control systems
(available at http://home.earthlink.net/~rmarken/demos.html)
does exactly what Norman suggests; the references from higher
order (level 2) control systems are varied much more slowly over
time than the references (outputs) from lower order (level 1)
systems.

Best

Rick

···

--
Richard S. Marken Phone or Fax: 310 474-0313
MindReadings.com mailto: marken@mindreadings.com
www.mindreadings.com

[From Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.1712)]

Rick Marken (2000.10.11.1300

> How can I perform the Test to determine if such a postulated
> higher-order system is really present and functioning in
> this way?

The same way you test to determine whether _any_ control system
is present and functioning; you do the test for the controlled
variable.

O.K. Suppose you put a dish of Cherry Garcia in front of me, and I eat it.
Does this tell me that there is no higher-order control system lowering my
reference for eating Cherry Garcia while writing e-mail messages? If so,
why wasn't I trying to find a dish of ice cream instead of writing an
e-mail message?

Actually, my spreadsheet model of a hierarchy of control systems
(available at http://home.earthlink.net/~rmarken/demos.html)
does exactly what Norman suggests; the references from higher
order (level 2) control systems are varied much more slowly over
time than the references (outputs) from lower order (level 1)
systems.

By inputs from lower-order control system outputs? So my desire to write
this e-mail message is slowly altered by outputs from my fingers. This is a
feature of the model that I missed entirely. You learn something new every day.

BG

[From Rick Marken (2000.10.11.1440)]

Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.1712)--

O.K. Suppose you put a dish of Cherry Garcia in front of me,
and I eat it. Does this tell me that there is no higher-order
control system lowering my reference for eating Cherry Garcia
while writing e-mail messages?

I don't think so.

Me:

Actually, my spreadsheet model of a hierarchy of control systems
(available at http://home.earthlink.net/~rmarken/demos.html)
does exactly what Norman suggests; the references from higher
order (level 2) control systems are varied much more slowly over
time than the references (outputs) from lower order (level 1)
systems.

Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.1712)

By inputs from lower-order control system outputs?

Bruce Nevin (2000.10.11.1719 EST)

It looks like Norman is proposing that outputs of lower-level
systems set and slowly vary the references of higher-level
systems.

Good catch for both of you. That part of Norman's suggestion
would not work. I was just referring to the fact that the
differential speed of variation of references at different
levels of the hierarchy presents no insuperable modeling
problems. In fact, lower level systems varying higher level
references presents no modeling problems either -- other
than the fact that the model won't behave correctly.

Best

Rick

···

--
Richard S. Marken Phone or Fax: 310 474-0313
MindReadings.com mailto: marken@mindreadings.com
www.mindreadings.com

[From Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.2003)]

Rick Marken (2000.10.11.1440)

Bruce Gregory (2000.1011.1712)--

> O.K. Suppose you put a dish of Cherry Garcia in front of me,
> and I eat it. Does this tell me that there is no higher-order
> control system lowering my reference for eating Cherry Garcia
> while writing e-mail messages?

I don't think so.

Oh?

BG

From Bruce Nevin (2000.10.11.1719 EST)

Rick Marken (2000.10.11.1300)--

···

At 01:50 PM 10/11/2000 -0700, Richard S. Marken wrote:

Norman Hovda (2000.1011.1125 MST)--

> Could it not be possible that "higher-order control system"
> references are "set", and varied much more slowly over time,
> by some combined mix and/or cumulative aggregate of lower-order
> control system outputs?

Actually, my spreadsheet model of a hierarchy of control systems
(available at http://home.earthlink.net/~rmarken/demos.html)
does exactly what Norman suggests; the references from higher
order (level 2) control systems are varied much more slowly over
time than the references (outputs) from lower order (level 1)
systems.

It looks like Norman is proposing that outputs of lower-level systems set and slowly vary the references of higher-level systems.

         Bruce Nevin